Monday, 10 September 2012

DNA Essay

A lot of interest on DNA knowledge emanates from the fact that parents are able to pass certain traits to young ones. DNA comprise of the genes, which are segments with hereditary information. This essay on DNA explains what constitute the DNA.
This essay on DNA shows functions of the DNA. By reading this essay on DNA, you will learn how DNA is constructed and form a picture of it in mind. This essay on DNA also shows how DNA would control working of cell and organism as a whole.
The DNA are constituted of the nucleotides and is the third, including RNA and protein, which are the macromolecules that form basis of life.
Millions of nucleotides (which are basically the repeating units) join together to make up the DNA. Two coiled helical chains form the backbone of the DNA, and support the bases (Thymine paired with Adenine and Guanine paired with Cytosine) located in between and along the two chains.
Phosphate and sugar molecules are what comprise the two-coiled helical chains constituting the backbone of the DNA, but they occur in an alternating manner. Through cell division, a DNA is capable of replicating.
Actually, the work of the DNA is to store the genetic information. It is concerned with storing information that helps in manufacturer of proteins and RNA molecules. First, this information is contained in genes, which are among the sequences of the DNA. There are other sequences involved in regulating this genetic information.
The purpose of the sequence of the bases located along the backbone chains is to encode the hereditary and genetic information. The strands formed by nucleotides (and which form the backbone) are anti-parallel and opposite to each other. The sequence is replicated to the sequence of amino acids within proteins. Remember, almost all functions in a cell are directed by proteins.
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The reading out or copying of the DNA sequence (sequence of the four bases) is termed as transcription. In this process, stretches of DNA are copied into related RNA. Remember, DNA replication occurring before cell division involves duplication of chromosomes. Chromosomes are basically the organized DNA structures in cells.
The interaction between DNA and other proteins also occur as guided by the compact structures that compact and organize DNA within chromosomes. An example of such a compact structure is the protein chromatin. They also play an important role of controlling which parts of DNA will undergo transcription. 

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